Indonesia began to export its coffee to Europe in 1711 thanks to the Dutch East India Company. At that time Indonesian producers cultivated only Arabica, but in 1876 a coffee rust disease swept through Indonesia, wiping out most of the Arabica Typica cultivar. Consequently, farmers decided to grow Rubusta coffee plants, which are more disease-resistant.
Today, more than 90% of Indonesia’s coffee is grown by smallholders on farms averaging around one hectare. They cultivate mainly Robusta coffee and the most widespread varieties are: Typica, Hibrido de Timor (commonly known as Tim Tim on the island of Sumatra), Caturra and Catimor.
Every island of the Indonesian archipelago produces a different coffee, with its own well recognizable characteristics.
Sumatra: it’s the biggest Indonesian island; here coffee is grown in the north (Aceh, Lintong) and in the south (Lampung and Mangkuraja) at 800-1.500 metres altitude. Coffee is processed using the unique Giling Basah technique (semi-washed), which gives to beans a distinctive bluish colour.
Java: on this island farmers cultivate mainly Robusta coffee, under State supervision (legacy of the Dutch colonial era). These plantations are among the largest of the Indonesian archipelago and are located at medium or low altitudes. On the other hand, Arabica coffee plants are grown at 1.400-1.800 metres altitude.
Sulawesi: this island is the largest Arabica producer of the archipelago. Plantations are located in the western and south-western region of the island, at 1.100-1.500 metres altitude. The most famous area is Tana Toraja, where there are the main highlands of Sulawesi. The major Arabica variety grown in this island is S795, a Typica hybrid. The most common processing method is the semi-washed technique (Giling Basah), but sometimes producers use also the wet method.
Indonesia is very famous in coffee production, also thanks to Kopi Luwak, a coffee that consists of partially digested coffee cherries, which have been eaten and defecated by the Asian palm civet.
|BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION||Robusta (90%) and Arabica (10%)|
|BAGS||from 60 kg|
|BLOOMING||from November to February|
|HARVESTING||Mainly from May to August|
|HARVESTING METHOD||hand picking|
|EXPORTATION|| ROBUSTA: all year round, mainly between May-August |
ARABICA: all year round since September
|BOARDING PORTS||Panjang, Palembang, Belawan|
|PRODUCTION||9 milion bags|